Artist, writer and poet (French)
Born March 30, 1844
Died January 8, 1896 (at the age of 51 years)
The child Verlaine March 30, 1844, in Metz birth of Paul-Marie Verlaine, son of Nicolas-Auguste, military career, and Elisa Stephanie Dehee. It is a wealthy bourgeois family. They raised their niece Elisa Moncomble in 1836 and will play with Paul in both the role of big brother and cousin. Longed only child, he was coddled by his mother and his cousin that pass her every whim. In 1849, Verlaine’s father resigned from the army after many changes and the family moved to Paris. From 1851 to 1861: Verlaine all his studies in Paris, in time intern at the institution Landry, rue Chaptal, then at the Lycee Bonaparte (Condorcet today). From 1862 to 1864: Bachelor of Arts Verlaine is 18. He enrolled in law but particularly frequent the cafes and poets. He quickly gives up her studies to work first in an insurance firm, then as the mayor of expeditionary ninth arrondissement.
It is then Expeditionary scheduling the prefecture of the Seine. With his friend Edmond Lepelletier, he attended the salon of the Marquise de Ricard and met her first Parnassians and that Alphonse Lemerre, future publisher. His first published poem is Mr. Prudhomme in the journal of his friend Louis Ricard: The Review of Progress. His father died in 1865. Paul lives with his mother. He is madly in love, but with no hope, his cousin Eliza, married since 1858.
In 1866, twenty-two, Verlaine seven poems published in Contemporary Parnassus, and his first plate at the author Lemerre, Saturnian Poems. In 1867, Eliza died at the age of thirty-one years. Consumed by grief, Verlaine took refuge in alcohol. Publication discrete Brussels by Poulet-Malassis, friend and publisher of Baudelaire, the “Friends, sapphic love Scenes”.
In 1868, Verlaine met Charles de Sivry musician Black Cat, half-brother of Mathilde Maute de Fleurville, and member of the group of future Villains Cathars. He frequented the salon of Nina de Villard (separated from her husband Hector de Callias). On February 20, 1869, He released “Christmas gallant” Lemerre, always at the author. Having met in Sivry Mathilde in June, he is courting. The Happy Song is a testament to that time. He leads a lewd Arras. In early July, while drunk, he tried twice to kill her mother a few days apart. In October, he formally requested Matilda in marriage. Besides, he became friends with Lucian Viotti ex-classmate with whom he tried the theater (first Vaucochard-son).
In June 1870, La Bonne Chanson seems Lemerre. On 11 August, apparently chastened, he married Matilda, aged seventeen years ago. In September, the beginning of the siege of Paris, he enlisted as a National Guard while remaining committed-editor of the City.
During the Commune, from March 18 to May 28, 1871, Verlaine retains his position at City Hall and then takes refuge in the province with his family. On 11 July he was dismissed. In August he returned to Paris and is hosted by Maute Nicolet Street. In September, he invited Rimbaud to join him in Paris. It is sixteen years old and he sent his first poems from Charleville. They visited Paris and hang out all the cafes. They go to the circle of poets zutique which meets in the Hotel des Etrangers, Boulevard Saint-Michel, and collaborate to Album collective group. Despite their broad-mindedness, these younger poets (among them Whitman) are outraged by the violence and rude attitude of Rimbaud. Verlaine is torn between his family life and his love for Rimbaud. Undecided, he drinks more and more.
In January 1872, a victim of domestic violence, Matilda fled with his son George, born October 30. She takes refuge in Perigueux. Verlaine lived until mid-March in Paris with Rimbaud, for whom he wrote “Ariettes forgotten”. Then, having promised his wife to break with Arthur returned to Charleville, she agrees to get back together. Back in Paris in May, Verlaine and Arthur contacted manage to convince to leave with him. Both fled to Belgium in Brussels in July 1872 (Future Landscapes Belgian Songs without words). Determined to bring her husband home, Matilda join hand with his mother on July 22. Both manage to lead Verlaine to the border but he abruptly abandoned the station and chose to join Rimbaud. Matilda returned to Paris and calls for the separation and property.
On September 7, Verlaine and Rimbaud travel between Ostend and Dover, and then win London. On the advice of his mother, Rimbaud returned to Charleville in December. Left alone, depressed and Verlaine falls ill. He is nursed by his mother in January 1873. Rimbaud joined him. Ex-Communist, Verlaine is monitored by the police away and hide. He leaves in Namur April 4 to try to reconcile with his wife, but she will not listen. In late May, Verlaine and Rimbaud were back in London. The couple spent money from Verlaine’s mother, and French lessons.
On July 3, following a violent argument that is a pretext, Verlaine leaves Rimbaud. He wants to try one last time to parley with his wife and threatened to shoot himself if she did not come to visit. The 5 Verlaine’s mother found her son in Brussels. Rimbaud arrives 8, summoned by telegram. On the 10th knowing that drunk and wants to leave permanently Rimbaud, Verlaine fired two shots at him with a revolver he had bought. Rimbaud was slightly injured left wrist. After receiving hospital treatment, such as Verlaine seems to persist in trying to prevent his departure at all costs while they are on the way to the station, Rimbaud becomes frightened and involves a police officer. Verlaine was arrested and underwent a forensic examination which concludes that homosexual practices.
On 8 August he was sentenced to two years in prison in Brussels, and 200F fine, although Rimbaud had withdrawn its complaint. After appeal, the decision is confirmed on August 27. First in prison in Brussels, Verlaine was transferred to Mons in October 1873. On March 27, 1874 appear Romances sans paroles. On April 24 the trial separation is made and gives Matilda custody of his son. Verlaine was sentenced to pay alimony of 1200F year.
In June, says the poet converted to Catholicism in prison and wrote some poems of wisdom.
He was released from prison Jan. 16, 1875, having received almost a year of remission for good conduct. He went with his mother Fampod (Pas-de-Calais) with his maternal uncle, and after another attempt at reconciliation with Mathilde, he moved to Stuttgart to join Rimbaud tutor who is and who is a two and a half days “denying his god. It was during this last meeting that Rimbaud gave him the manuscript of the Illuminations.
On March 20, Verlaine in London, Professor of Greek, Latin, French and drawing. He meets Germain Nouveau, former zutique Circle and also a friend of Rimbaud. Verlaine sends poems to contemporary third Parnassus who refuses. In December, he sent a last letter to Rimbaud, also remained unanswered, since he refused to help financially. Verlaine, however, continue to try to stay informed of the doings of his friend staying in touch with their friends, Ernest Delahaye and Germain Nouveau.
In 1876, he taught in England: Stickney, Boston, and Bournemouth. He regularly spends his holidays in France with his mother. ” In late June 1877, he left England. In October, he was hired as a professor at Bethel. He teaches French, English, history and geography. In 1878, Verlaine all year trying in vain to bend Matilda through Sivry with whom he worked on a Operetta, The Temptation of St. Anthony. At Bethel, the next school year, he formed with one of his pupils, Lucien Létinois, 18, a friendship equivocal.
On September 4, 1879, he was expelled from Notre Dame de Rethel and left immediately for London Létinois Lucien, who is a professor in Stickney, where Verlaine had taught. He teaches at Lymington, near Southampton and the Isle of Wight. At Christmas, they meet in London. Following an argument, they suddenly come back in France. In March 1881, Verlaine bought a farm in Juniville for parents of Lucien, near Bethel, and moved there with them.
In summer, it is in Arras with Germain Nouveau. In autumn, it goes wherever Lucien made his military service as a gunner. In November, Wisdom appears at the author at the General Society of Catholic Bookstore. World Journal of Catholic refuses to publish a Trip to France by the French.
In January 1882, the field Juniville (in Rethel) is sold at a loss and Verlaine returned to Paris. He is thirty-eight years, calls for steps to be reintegrated into the administration, revives the literary circles, published in November Poetics in modern Paris. After an administrative inquiry that goes back juqu’à Brussels affair and discovered forensic evidence from 1873 which mentioned his homosexuality, he is not reinstated in the administration. In April 1883, Lucien Létinois died at twenty-three years, of typhoid fever. The despair of Verlaine will result in a series of twenty-five poems in memory of his “adopted son”, which ends Love. In July, Verlaine’s mother buys a property for Létinois (Malval) to Coulommes near Rethel. Verlaine moved there with her in September and will lead a life of debauchery and drunkenness.
In March 1884, published in Vanier prose poets cursed with a chapter on the Man with soles of wind. Other poems that will find their place in past long ago and seem reviewed. In April, Verlaine’s mother made the donation to his son’s field Malval.
In January 1885, release of past and long ago in Vanier. On February 9, the divorce between Mathilde and Verlaine is made, the wrongs of the latter. Verlaine lack of strangling his mother who sought refuge with neighbors. On March 8, the field Malval is resold. On March 24, Verlaine was sentenced by the court Vouziers to one year in prison for assault, injury and death threats against his mother. He was released May 13 on the intervention of the latter. He wanders until June, when he moved back to Paris, Hotel du Midi, with his mother. He suffers hydarthrosis knee. At the Hotel du Midi, he met the prostitute Mary Gambier, thirty years, the first of his three recent important mistresses, the “Princess Roukhine” in parallel.